Hello and welcome to the 3rd Chapter of Mari Belajar Bahasa Melayu. In this chapter, I will be introducing to you the basics of words that make up the language, the root words ( Kata akar).
Kata akar can either be categorized as a noun or as a verb. This is the word that is used in the dictionary. So, you would have to find the root word of a word in order to find its meaning in the dictionary. In addition, a noun can be made into a verb by adding prefixes or suffixes to the word and vice versa.
Hampir (Close to something) is a noun and is a kata akar. However, you can change it into a verb by adding the prefix Meng- and suffix -i which then becomes "menghampiri" which means to come close to.
Sapu (To sweep) is a verb and is also a kata akar. To change it into a noun, you can add the prefix Pen- and it turns into "penyapu" which means broom.
There are many of these prefixes and suffixes that you would have to learn in order to use them correctly. Here's a list of some of the prefixes, suffixes and infixes that are regularly used:
5) Meng- + -i
9) Me- + -kan
10) Peng- + -an
11) Peng- + -kan
And so on. I don't want to scare you but it is important that you use them correctly because by using the wrong ones a word can have a totally different meaning.
Let's begin with the simplest prefix which is Me-. Whenever this prefix is added to a kata akar, it will change it into a verb.
1) Saya sedang men-yapu.
I am sweeping.
2) Dia me-lontar sebutir batu.
He throws a rock.
3) Kami me-lompat di atas katil.
We are jumping on the bed.
The bolded red shows you the prefix while the italic red is the kata akar.
Don't worry about it now as this is only the introduction. We will look into the prefixes, suffixes and infixes in much detailed later in the lessons ahead.